Mutations of the gene EGFR are among the many most typical present in NSCLC, says Dr. Rodriguez. “We used to assume they have been extra widespread in girls, non-smokers, and youthful sufferers, however we now know that they are often present in nearly each kind of affected person,” she explains. Different genes for which focused therapies have been developed embrace: KRAS, RET, ALK, ROS-1, NTRK, MET, BRAF, and V600E. “There’s a complete alphabet of mutations,” says Dr. Rodriguez. Many are below investigation as doable targets for remedy. “The problem is to seek out driver mutations, the mutations which can be actually driving the tumor,” she says.